Uganda

Region:
Africa
Did you already know:
Uganda hosted the Commonwealth local authorities convention, 14–17 may additionally 2013, when delegates called for nearby government to be fully incorporated with the put up-2015 improvement agenda.

Samuel Kavuma of Uganda become in 2010 appointed to the Commonwealth Eminent persons group, which presented its tips for reform within the Commonwealth to Commonwealth leaders at CHOGM in Australia in October 2011.

Ugandans won the Commonwealth Essay opposition in 1989 and 2007.

Dorcas Inzikuru took the Commonwealth games girls’s three,000 Metres Steeplechase report in the Melbourne games in 2006.

Key records

Joined Commonwealth:
1962
Populace:
41,490,000 (2016)
GDP:
Four.6% annual alternate (2016)
UN HDI:
Global ranking 163
Official language:
English, Kiswahili
Timezone:
GMT plus 3hr
Forex:
Uganda shilling (USh)
Geography
Region:
236,000 sq.Km consisting of 36,330 sq.Km of inland water.
Shoreline:
None
Capital city:
Kampala
Populace density (in step with sq. Km):
207

Uganda is a landlocked East African united states mendacity astride the equator. It's far bordered (clockwise from north) via Sudan, Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Essential cities: 

Kampala (capital, pop. 1.52m in 2014), Kira (313,761), Mbarara (195,013), Mukono (161,996), Gulu (152,276), Nansana (one hundred forty four,441), Masaka (103,829), Kasese (a hundred and one,679), Hoima (one hundred,625), Lira (ninety nine,059), Mbale (ninety six,189), Njeru (eighty one,052), Jinja (72,931), Entebbe (sixty nine,958), Arua (62,657), Iganga (fifty three,870), Kabale (49,667), Mityana (48,002), Kitgum (44,604), Tororo (41,906) and Koboko (37,825).

Delivery: 

Some 70,750 km of roads radiate from Kampala, 23 in keeping with cent of which might be paved. The railway network extends over some 260 km. On the cease of 1993, passenger offerings between Kampala and Kenya have been resumed after a ruin of 15 years. Entebbe international Airport is 35 km south-west of Kampala.

International members of the family: 

Uganda is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific organization of States, African Union, commonplace marketplace for eastern and Southern Africa, East African community, Non-Aligned motion, enterprise of Islamic Cooperation, United nations and global change corporation.

Uganda turned into a member, with Kenya and United Republic of Tanzania, of the East African community, which from 1967 had a common marketplace and plenty of shared services but collapsed in 1977. The 3 international locations once more launched into developing local co- operation in 1993, bringing about progressive harmonisation of requirements and regulations throughout a huge variety of activities, and launching a new East African community in January 2001 and East African Customs Union in January 2005. The community turned into enlarged in July 2007 when Burundi and Rwanda became contributors.

Uganda is also a member of the Intergovernmental Authority on improvement, which was mounted in 1986 with the aid of the six nations inside the Horn of Africa to fight drought and desertification and promote food safety in the region.

Topography: 

Water, with swampland, covers almost 20 consistent with cent of the floor region. The largest lakes include Lake George, Lake Kyoga, and components of Lakes Victoria, Albert and Edward. From its supply in Lake Victoria, the White Nile flows northwards thru the country. Mountains include the high Rwenzori variety in the west (Margherita height on Mount Stanley is 5,110 metres) and Mount Elgon (4,253 metres) inside the east.


Weather: 

Equatorial, tempered with breezes and showers. Cooler in the higher regions. Heavy rain from March to may also, and in October and November. Little rainfall within the north-east; even though north-east components of the united states experienced surprisingly heavy rainfall inside the latter part of 2007 with heavy flooding displacing tens of heaps of people.

Surroundings: 

The most considerable issues are: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; overgrazing, soil erosion and deforestation; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; and poaching.

Flowers: 

An awful lot of the usa, being so well-watered, is richly fertile; there may be arid semi-desolate tract inside the north-east. Most of the u . S .’s flora is savannah with tropical forests in areas of excessive rainfall. Drought-resistant bush, grasses and succulents grow in the north-east. Woodland covers 14 per cent of the land location, having declined at 2.3 in keeping with cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land accommodates 35 per cent and permanent cropland 11 according to cent of the total land area.

Wildlife: 

Uganda has 7,two hundred squarekm of national parks and sport reserves, reflecting the awesome range of the u . S . A . Which contains lakes, swamps, dense grassland, wooded area, rolling plains, forests and mountains. There may be a wealthy sort of wildlife, along with elephants, Uganda kobs, buffaloes, lions, rhinos, mountain gorillas and chimpanzees – 338 species of mammals and 830 species of birds. A few 25 mammal species and 20 chook species are concept to be endangered (2014).

History of Uganda


Kenya

Area:
Africa
Did you realize:
The father folks President Barack Obama was a Kenyan national.

Kenyan athletes preserve 8 Commonwealth games records and 19 global statistics.

Kenyan athletes maintain 8 Commonwealth games statistics and 19 world facts. Dennis Kipruto Kimetto, born in 1984, has won marathons all over the world, and presently holds the sector information for the quickest marathon and the quickest 25 km.

Kenya hosts the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), the UN environment Programme (UNEP) and a national bankruptcy of the Commonwealth Human Ecology Council (CHEC).

G. Vassanji gained the Commonwealth first-rate First e book Prize (Africa place) in 1990, with Margaret A. Ogola being provided it in 1995.

Key facts

Joined Commonwealth:
1963
Population:
48.Forty six million (2016)
GDP:
Five.8% annual exchange (2016)
UN HDI:
International ranking 146
Respectable language:
Kiswahili, English
Timezone:
GMT plus 3hrs
Currency:
Kenyan shilling
Geography
Place:
582,646 sq.Km
Coastline:
536km
Capital town:
Nairobi
Population density (consistent with sq. Km):
76

Kenya lies astride the equator, extending from the Indian Ocean in the east to Uganda in the west and from the United Republic of Tanzania inside the south to Ethiopia and Sudan inside the north. At the east and north-east it borders Somalia.

The united states is split into eight provinces (principal, Coast, eastern, Nairobi, North-jap, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western).

Major towns: 

Nairobi (capital, pop. Three.25m), Mombasa (Coast, 917,800), Nakuru (Rift Valley, 275,300), Eldoret (Rift Valley, 251,900), Kisumu (Nyanza, 230,600), Ruiru (critical, 167,one hundred), Thika (imperative, 106,000), Malindi (Coast, 82,2 hundred), Kitale (Rift Valley, eighty one,three hundred), Bungoma (Western, seventy six,700), Kakamega (Western, seventy one,three hundred), Garissa (North-eastern, sixty three,900), Kilifi (Coast, sixty three,900), Mumias (Western, 57,900), Meru (eastern, fifty one,600), Nyeri (valuable, 49,400), Wajir (North-eastern, forty one,400), Lamu (Coast, 32,400) and Marsabit (japanese, 16,seven hundred).

Shipping: 

61,950 km of roads, 14 according to cent paved, and around 1,920 km of railway. The primary railway line runs between Mombasa and Nairobi, and branch traces hook up with Taveta on the Tanzanian border in the south and Kisumu on Lake Victoria within the west.

Mombasa is the leader port for Kenya and an vital nearby port, dealing with freight for and from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo, together with a considerable quantity of meals useful resource. Ferries ply the coast among Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu.

Jomo Kenyatta global Airport is thirteen km south-east of Nairobi. Moi global is thirteen km west of Mombasa.

Global members of the family: 

Kenya is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific organization of States, African Union, common market for jap and Southern Africa, East African community, Indian Ocean Rim affiliation, Non-Aligned movement, United nations and world alternate agency.

Kenya turned into a member, with Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, of the East African community, which from 1967 had a commonplace market and many shared offerings, however collapsed in 1977. The three international locations once more embarked on developing nearby co-operation in 1993, bringing about progressive harmonisation of standards and rules throughout a wide variety of activities and launching a brand new East African network in January 2001 and East African Customs Union in January 2005. The network turned into enlarged in July 2007 whilst Burundi and Rwanda became participants.

Kenya is likewise a member of the Intergovernmental Authority on development, which became mounted in 1986 by the six nations in the Horn of Africa to fight drought and desertification and promote food safety in the place.

Kenya hosts the headquarters of the United international locations surroundings Programme in Nairobi.

Topography: 

There are 4 predominant areas. The north-east simple is arid. The south-east place is fertile alongside the Tana river, in the coastal strip and within the Taita Hills, which rise to two,100 metres. The north-west is usually low-lying and arid but includes Lake Turkana, 260 km lengthy, and lots of mountains, together with Nyiru (2,800 metres). The south-west sector, a plateau rising to 3,000 metres, includes some of Africa’s highest mountains: Mount Kenya (five,200 metres), Mount Elgon (4,320 metres) and the Aberdare range (four,000 metres). The brilliant Rift Valley runs across the plateau from north to south, 50–65 km wide and six hundred–1,000 metres deep. West of the Rift the plateau falls to Lake Victoria and eastward the rivers Tana and Athi (or Galana downstream) circulate the Indian Ocean.


Climate: 

The coastal regions are tropical, with monsoon winds. The lowlands are warm and in particular dry. The highlands are plenty cooler and feature four seasons. Nairobi, 1,seven hundred metres above sea degree, has an average temperature that tiers from not less than 13°C to a maximum of 25°C; Mombasa, on the coast, from not less than 23°C to a maximum of 29°C. Rainfall varies from a mean annual 150 mm at Lodwar within the north-west to one,470 mm at Kisumu, close to Lake Victoria inside the west. Northern parts of the u . S . A . Have been hit by means of extreme floods inside the latter a part of 2007.

Environment: 

The maximum sizable troubles are water pollution from city and commercial wastes; degradation of water great from expanded use of pesticides and fertilisers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; and poaching.

Plant life: 

Thornbush and grassland are characteristic of plenty of the united states. Various wooded area covers approximately thirteen,000 squarekm of the south-west area, at 2–three,500 metres above sea level. Forest covers six per cent of the land region, having declined at zero.Three in keeping with cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land accommodates ten consistent with cent and everlasting cropland one in keeping with cent of the total land vicinity.

Natural world: 

Kenya’s natural world might be the most famous in the international. Wild mammals encompass lions, leopards, cheetahs, zebras, antelopes, gazelles, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami, baboons and lots of styles of monkeys. There are 359 recorded species of mammals, of which 28 are endangered (2012). Reptiles consist of crocodiles and more than 100 species of snake. There's a wealthy sort of native birdlife and the u . S . A . Is visited by means of migrant birds which breed in Europe. There are 344 species of birds, 34 of which might be endangered (2012). Wildlife is blanketed in reserves extending to forty five,500 squarekm, or some 8 in keeping with cent of the whole land location.

History of Kenya


Guyana

Area:
Caribbean and Americas
Did you already know:
Sir Shridath Ramphal of Guyana changed into Commonwealth Secretary-widespread 1975–ninety.

Guyanese writers have won the overall pleasant First book award of the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize in 1991 (Pauline Melville) and in 2006 (Mark McWatt).

The government of Guyana, at the 1989 CHOGM, supplied to set apart approximately 360,000 hectares of pristine rainforest for studies to illustrate methods for conservation and sustainable use of woodland sources and biodiversity: as a result, the Commonwealth’s flagship Iwokrama Rainforest Programme was released the subsequent year.

The Commonwealth adolescents Programme Caribbean Centre is primarily based in Georgetown.

Key data

Joined Commonwealth:
1966
Population:
800,000 (2013)
GDP:
3.Zero% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
International ranking 121
Professional language:
English
Timezone:
GMT minus 4hr
Foreign money:
Guyana dollar (G$)
Geography
Place:
214,970 sq.Km
Coastline:
459km
Capital metropolis:
Georgetown
Populace density (in keeping with sq. Km):
4

The Co-operative Republic of Guyana lies in the north-east of South the united states, north of the equator. It is bordered by way of Suriname, Brazil and Venezuela and, to the north and east, extends to the North Atlantic Ocean. The united states of america incorporates ten regions.

Major towns: 

Georgetown (capital, pop. 118,363 in 2012), Linden (27,277), New Amsterdam (17,329), Anna Regina (eleven,793), Corriverton (10,600), Bartica (eight,500), Rosignol, Skeldon and Vreed en Hoop. Georgetown is famous for its Dutch-stimulated wood structure, road format and drainage canals.


Transport: 

Floor journey in the indoors of the u . S . A . Is hindered by means of dense forest, rapids on the rivers, and the normally undeveloped person of the indoors. As a result, aside from inside the coastal belt and on one inland course, most trips are with the aid of air.

There are all-weather roads along the eastern a part of the coast and some all-weather roads inland, along with one across the united states to the border with Brazil, and approximately seven in step with cent of the overall network of seven,970 km is paved. There may be no passenger rail carrier, even though mining corporations have non-public items traces.

There are some 1,six hundred km of navigable river, 1,000 km of which are in regions of a few monetary interest. Passenger and load vessels journey up the Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice rivers, and also alongside the coast among the rivers. Other than the Demerara, which has a avenue bridge, the other important rivers ought to be crossed with the aid of ferries, which can take some hours for the broader rivers. On the Corentyne river ferry services hyperlink Guyana with Suriname.

Georgetown is the primary port, and the international airport is CBJ international Airport, at Timehri, forty km from Georgetown; large towns and many mining corporations have airports or touchdown strips.

International relations: 

Guyana is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific institution of States, affiliation of Caribbean States, Caribbean community, Non-Aligned movement, business enterprise of Islamic Cooperation, business enterprise of american States, United countries and global trade agency.

Guyana hosts the headquarters of the Caribbean community in Georgetown.

Topography: 

Guyana has three wonderful geographical zones. It has a slim coastal belt, seldom more than 25 km huge and lots of it 1–1.5 metres underneath sea degree, wherein sugar and rice are grown and ninety in keeping with cent of the human beings live. In the far indoors are high savannah uplands; between these, thick, hilly tropical forest covers most of the land location. For the country as a whole forest covers seventy seven in keeping with cent of the land area. Within the wooded area zone are determined maximum of the united states of america’s sources of bauxite, diamonds, gold, manganese and other minerals. Guyana’s big rivers include the Demerara, Berbice, Essequibo and Corentyne; rapids, bars and different obstacles make navigation difficult. The Kaieteur Falls on the Potaro river have a 222 metres drop – 5 times the peak of Niagara. The Amerindian call ‘Guiana’ (part of the united states’s former name) way ‘Land of Many Waters’.

Climate: 

Guyana has a heat tropical climate with excessive rainfall and humidity. The wet seasons are November–January and may–July with an average rainfall of two,350 mm p.A. Within the coastal vicinity. Inland rainfall averages 1,520 mm p.A. North-east exchange winds moderate coastal temperatures.

Environment: 

The most substantial environmental problems are water pollution by means of sewage, and agricultural and commercial chemicals; and deforestation.

Flora: 

Guyana’s tropical wooded area, covering 77 in step with cent of the land area, is a few of the most ecologically precious and nice preserved within the global. The environment is an difficulty of top notch political importance in Guyana. There is issue approximately weather alternate and sea-degree upward push, because the low-mendacity littoral simple relies on a machine of dams, partitions and drainage canals to prevent flooding from the ocean or the massive rivers. Wooded area assets are also important; the united states has taken a lead in advancing forestry conservation and sustainable development and there has been no widespread lack of wooded area cover in the course of 1990–2012.

Beneath the Iwokrama Rainforest Programme, some 371,000 hectares, a whole lot of it virgin forest, have been set apart for preservation and scientific take a look at of its ecology and for sustainable improvement of the parts inhabited through Amerindian tribes or migrant mining communities. The programme was launched via the Guyana government and the Commonwealth Secretariat.

Natural world: 

The tapir is the largest land mammal; cats encompass the jaguar and ocelot. Monkeys and deer are the maximum severa species, and caimans are the biggest freshwater animal. The massive anaconda or water boa is also observed within the rivers. The wealth of plant, animal and micro-organism species consists of many to this point unrecorded, whose houses are unknown to technology. A few 11 species of mammals and 11 species of birds are concept to be endangered (2014).

History of Guyana


Malawi
Area:
Africa
Did you realize?
Malawi is one of seven landlocked Commonwealth countries, all of which are in Africa, though it does have a border with Lake Malawi of extra than 750 km.

Key records

Joined Commonwealth:
1964
Populace:
18.09 million (2016)
GDP:
2.5% annual alternate (2016)
UN HDI:
World ranking one hundred seventy
Legit language:
English
Timezone:
GMT plus 2hr
Foreign money:
Malawi kwacha (MK)
Geography
Place:
118,484 sq.Km
Shoreline:
None
Capital city:
Lilongwe
Population density (according to sq. Km):
138

Malawi is a long, slim south-east African united states formed with the aid of the dramatic Rift Valley, with Lake Malawi a dominant feature. It's far bordered by means of Mozambique to the east, south and south-west, with the aid of Zambia to the north and north-west, and by the United Republic of Tanzania to the north and north-east.

There are 3 areas: the northern (capital Mzuzu), the principal (capital Lilongwe) and the southern (capital Blantyre).

Fundamental towns: 

Lilongwe (capital, pop. 723,six hundred in 2010), Blantyre (business centre, 694,500), Mzuzu (138,300), Zomba (seat of Parliament, ninety one,900), Kasungu (46,six hundred), Karonga (forty four,000), Mangochi (forty two,three hundred), Salima (28,800), Nkhotakota (25,900), Liwonde (25,100), Balaka (23,900), Mzimba (22,400), Dedza (21,2 hundred), Nsanje (20,three hundred), Rumphi (18,2 hundred) and Mchinji (17,800).

Transport: 

There are 15,450 km of roads (forty five consistent with cent paved) and 797 km of railway. Rehabilitation of the battle-damaged railway line to the Mozambican port of Nacala become completed in 1997. Plans have been announced in 1999 for personal-zone control of Malawi Railways, main to eventual privatisation.

Lilongwe international Airport handles the bulk of home and worldwide visitors; the second worldwide airport is Blantyre Chileka.

Global members of the family: 

Malawi is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of States, African Union, commonplace marketplace for jap and Southern Africa, Non-Aligned motion, Southern African development network, United international locations and world change organization.

Topography: 

Malawi’s deep Rift Valley trench is on common eighty km extensive. Lake Malawi occupies two-thirds of the Rift Valley ground. It feeds the Shire river, which flows south to join the Zambezi. Plateaux upward thrust west of the ditch. The northern place is mountainous, with the open Nyika Plateau, escarpments, valleys and the forested slopes of Viphya Plateau. The crucial location, the principle agricultural area, is a plateau over 1,000 metres high. The southern vicinity is low-lying other than the 2,one hundred metres excessive Zomba Plateau and the three,002 metres Mulanje Massif, the highest mountain in south-critical Africa.

Climate: 

The tropical climate is tempered by altitude and cooler at the excessive plateaux. There are three seasons: a fab, dry season from mid-April to August; a heat, dry season from September to November; and a rainy season (receiving 90 in keeping with cent of precipitation) from December to April. Most of the u . S . Is well watered, receiving 800–2,500 mm of rain, with a few areas inside the excessive plateaux receiving three,500 mm p.A.

Surroundings: 

The maximum good sized environmental troubles are deforestation; soil degradation; and water pollutants by means of agricultural run-off, sewage and business wastes.

Flora: 

The various weather encourages various vegetation. Zomba Plateau, the country’s oldest woodland reserve, has Mulanje cedar, cypress and Mexican pine. There's dense tropical rainforest on the lower tiers of the Mulanje Massif; better up develop ericas, helichrysum, massive blue lobelias, species of iris, staghorn lily and (particular to Malawi) Whyte’s sunflower. Woodland covers 34 consistent with cent of the land vicinity, having declined at zero.9 in keeping with cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land contains 38 in keeping with cent and permanent cropland one per cent of the total land area.

Natural world: 

Animals encompass leopard, hyena, jackal, hyrax, porcupine, red duiker, bushbuck, reedbuck, klipspringer, baboon, mongoose, vervet monkey, serval, civet, genet, tree frog. Greater than 219 bird species had been recorded, including the white-tailed crested fly catcher, monetary shrike and wailing cisticola, and 15 species are concept to be endangered (2012). Birds of prey include the augur buzzard, the eagle owl and the lengthy-crested eagle.

History of Malawi



Australia changed into a founder member of the Commonwealth in 1931 when its independence turned into acknowledged below the Statute of Westminster.

It's miles one of 28 island countries inside the association; the mainland of Australia is the most important island inside the global.

Of the various across the world acclaimed Australian writers, 11 have won ordinary Commonwealth Writers’ Prizes, eight for great ebook and three for quality First book.


Key facts

Joined Commonwealth:
1931 (Statute of Westminster)
Populace:
23,343,000 (2013)
GDP:
1.Eight% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
Global ranking 2
Reputable language:
English
Timezone:
GMT plus eight–11hr
Forex:
Australian dollar (A$)
Geography
Area:
7,682,395 squarekm
Shoreline:
25,800km
Capital metropolis:
Canberra
Population density (in step with sq. Km):
3

The term ‘Australia’ is derived from Terra Australis, the call given to a southern landmass whose life geographers deduced before it was discovered. Papua New Guinea (to the north) and New Zealand (to the east) are Australia’s closest neighbours. To the south lie the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a Federation with six states – New South Wales (kingdom capital Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth) and Tasmania (Hobart) – and  territories, Northern Territory (capital Darwin) and the Australian Capital Territory, in which the federal capital, Canberra, is situated. Australia also has external territories (described inside the profiles following this one). Those have small populations or are uninhabited and, apart from the giant Australian Antarctic Territory, are small islands.

Major towns: 

Canberra (capital, Australian Capital Territory, pop. 356,586 in 2011), Sydney (New South Wales, three.9m), Melbourne (Victoria, three.7m), Brisbane (Queensland, 1.87m), Perth (Western Australia, 1.62m), Adelaide (South Australia, 1.1m), Gold Coast – Tweed Heads (Queensland, 533,659), Newcastle (New South Wales, 308,307), Hobart (Tasmania, 204,951) and Darwin (Northern Territory, seventy eight,467).

Shipping: 

There are 825,500 km of roads, forty four consistent with cent paved; Australian street layout is understood for the long, straight roads in rural regions. A few roads can be impassable after heavy rain.

Rail offerings hyperlink major towns across the u . S . And the full device extends to 8,615 km. The 4,000 km Indian–Pacific from Sydney to Perth takes 3 days. The 3,000 km north–south line, linking Adelaide in the south with Alice Springs in the centre and Darwin inside the north became finished in 2003.

The country has 25,800 km of shoreline and many deep-water harbours.

Global airports are at Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, Darwin, Brisbane, Hobart, Townsville and Cairns.


Global members of the family: 

Australia is a member of Asia–Pacific financial Cooperation, Indian Ocean Rim affiliation for regional Cooperation, business enterprise for monetary Co-operation and improvement, Pacific network, Pacific Islands forum, United international locations and global exchange organisation.

Topography: 

Australia is the largest hyperlink within the chain going for walks between South-East Asia and the South Pacific. A good deal of crucial Australia is wilderness. The main mountain chain, the wonderful Dividing variety, runs down the east coast, growing to Australia’s maximum point at Mt Kosciusko (2,230m). Consequently, a number of the rivers draining to the east are short; those flowing to the west, of which the Murray-Darling river machine is the maximum tremendous, generally tend to flow only after heavy rains and end in lakes which are regularly dry with a salt-bed.

Weather: 

The Tropic of Capricorn nearly bisects the continent, strolling just north of Alice Springs, Australia’s imperative agreement. The subtropical areas north of this line have summer rainfall and dry winters. South of the Tropic, the rest of the continent and Tasmania are temperate. Continental issues have an effect on this simple pattern, most coastal regions having some rainfall, whereas a massive tract of primary Australia has less than 300mm p.A. Drought and consequent bushfires are a extreme problem.

This sample of rainfall may be dramatically laid low with occasional los angeles NiƱa events which occur in the principal and japanese Pacific Ocean causing the sea to cool and growing the possibility that sturdy cool onshore winds will convey heavy rains to the japanese regions of Australia, as happened from November 2010, whilst there have been devastating floods first in Queensland, then in Victoria.

Environment: 

The maximum massive environmental issues are soil erosion and desertification; loss of the natural habitat of many precise animal and plant species due to increases in agricultural and commercial production; and harm to the wonderful Barrier Reef, the most important coral reef within the international, because of improved transport and tourism.

Vegetation: 

A huge variety, from the tropical jungle of Queensland to the sparse plant life of the wilderness, with many specific species which evolved inside the continent’s lengthy geological isolation. Over 500 species of eucalyptus and over 600 species of acacia (wattle). The primary fertile regions are in the south and east in New South Wales and Victoria – arable land comprises 6% of the full land place, while the north-east has tropical forest and bush – wooded area covers 19% of the usa.

Wildlife: 

Many indigenous animal species are precise to the continent. The maximum distinctive are the marsupials, of which there are 120 species from the kangaroo to the tiny desolate tract mouse, and the monotremes, the rare order of mammals which lay eggs, such as the duck-billed platypus and the echidna. There also are numerous species of flightless birds – the emu, 2d most effective to the African ostrich in size, and the cassowary

History of Austrailia


United kingdom
Location:
Europe
Did you recognize:
Queen Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth and head of country of sixteen Commonwealth nations.

The United Kingdom hosts in London the HQ of the Commonwealth Secretariat, Commonwealth basis, affiliation of Commonwealth Universities, Commonwealth company and funding Council, Commonwealth video games Federation, Commonwealth local authorities forum and the Commonwealth Parliamentary affiliation.

Scholarships and fellowships are offered by means of the UK to citizens of other Commonwealth nations below the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan.

3 Britons have won the general Commonwealth Writers’ Prize and four the first-class First book award.


Key statistics

Populace:
Sixty three,136,000 (2013)
GDP:
1.Five% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
International rating 14
Official language:
English
Timezone:
GMT plus zero–1hr
Foreign money:
Pound sterling (£)
Geography
Location:
243,305 sq.Km – England 130,395; Scotland seventy eight,313; Wales 20,754; Northern eire thirteen,843.
Coastline:
12,400km
Capital town:
London
Population density (consistent with sq. Km):
259

The United Kingdom of top notch Britain and northern eire (united kingdom) consists of a group of islands off the western coast of Europe. The most important, notable Britain, incorporates three countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Eire, to the west, consists of the United Kingdom’s province of Northern ireland and the Irish Republic. There are several offshore islands and island groups, the biggest mendacity off Scotland.

The UK is a union of four nations: England, Scotland, Wales and northern ireland. The Crown dependencies (the Channel Islands and the Isle of guy) are largely self-governing with the United Kingdom answerable for their defence and global relations and aren't part of the UK.

Fundamental cities: 

London (capital, England, pop. 8.25m in 2011), Birmingham (England, 1.08m), Glasgow (Scotland, 590,507), Liverpool (England, 552,267), Bristol (England, 535,907), Sheffield (England, 518,090), Manchester (England, 510,746), Leeds (England, 474,632), Edinburgh (Scotland, 459,366), Leicester (England, 443,760), Bradford (England, 349,561), Cardiff (Wales, 335,a hundred forty five), Coventry (England, 325,349), Nottingham (England, 289,301), Kingston upon Hull (England, 284,321), Belfast (Northern eire, 280,561), Stoke-on-Trent (England, 270,726), Newcastle-upon-Tyne (England, 268,064), Southampton (England, 253,651), Portsmouth (England, 238,137), Plymouth (England, 234,982), Derby (England, 225,394), Wolverhampton (England, 210,319), Aberdeen (Scotland, 195,021), Norwich (England, 186,682), Swansea (Wales, 179,485), Oxford (England, 159,994) and Cambridge (England, one hundred forty five,818).


Shipping: 

There are 419,630 km of roads, a hundred per cent paved; motorways account for some 3,500 km. As a minimum 70 in keeping with cent of households own one or more automobiles, 27 consistent with cent proudly owning  or more.

The arena’s first passenger steam railway (the Stockton and Darlington Railway) started out operation in Britain in 1825. The system changed into nationalised in 1948 and privatisation became finished in 1997, although Railtrack, the company that controlled the railway infrastructure, reverted to public ownership in 2001, as community Rail. There are 31,471 km of railway.

The Channel Tunnel become opened to site visitors in 1994. It operates a fast undersea train shuttle between Folkestone in England and Calais in France, carrying automobiles, freight and passengers, linking London with Paris and Brussels. There are underground railway structures in London (‘the tube’) and Glasgow. Liverpool has a metro- like device. Numerous mild rail structures were constructed during the 1990s, which include the Docklands light Railway, Tyne and wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, South Yorkshire Supertram, the Midland Metro and the Croydon Tramlink.

There are about 100 commercially substantial ports and numerous hundred small harbours. The primary ports are London, Dover, Tees and Hartlepool, Grimsby and Immingham, Southampton, Liverpool and Felixstowe. Forth, Sullom Voe (Shetland) and Milford Haven basically take care of oil.

London’s global airports are Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and city Airport. Different fundamental worldwide airports are Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow. There are greater than a hundred and fifty civil aerodromes.

Global members of the family: 

United kingdom is a member of the Council of Europe, ecu Union, North Atlantic Treaty enterprise, employer for monetary Co-operation and improvement, business enterprise for security and Co-operation in Europe, United nations and global change corporation.

Topography: 

The UK is simply under 1,000 km lengthy and just below 500 km throughout at the widest factor. The usa is low-mendacity within the east of britain, with mountains in Wales, Scotland and northern eire. The Pennine chain bureaucracy a ridge down northern England. The Cambrian Mountains stretch throughout Wales, with Snowdon inside the north-west rising to 1,1/2 metres. Northern eire has the Sperrin, Antrim and Mourne Mountains. Scotland has nearly three hundred peaks over 913 metres and Ben Nevis within the Grampian variety rises to at least one,343 metres. The Scottish Orkney and Shetland islands within the north and Hebrides within the north-west are mountainous and fiorded island chains. The United Kingdom is well-watered, with navigable rivers such as the Thames, Severn, Trent, Mersey and Tyne. There are many lakes, especially within the north-west (the Lake District) and in Scotland and northerly eire (known respectively as lochs or loughs).

Weather: 

The climate is mild, cool-temperate and oceanic. Rainfall is commonly heaviest between September and January. Air currents across the Atlantic are warmed with the aid of the Gulf movement and make the rainfall unpredictable however also give the us of a a hotter climate than ordinary for its latitude. The northerly range offers lengthy days in summer season and long nights in wintry weather.


Surroundings: 

The maximum large environmental issues are: persevering with reduction of greenhouse gasoline emissions in step with Kyoto Protocol commitments; air pollution specially by means of motor motors; and the want to recycle a regularly large proportion of strong waste.

Plants: 

The original natural plant life consisted in large part of forest, but seventy six in keeping with cent of the land area is now cultivated farmland or pasture. There may be moorland in Yorkshire (northern England), the south-west and Scotland. Wooded area regions have doubled since 1919 and constitute 12 consistent with cent of the land location, having improved at 0.5 in step with cent p.A. 1990–2010. Fifteen national parks in England, Wales and Scotland, regional parks and various targeted areas help to protect the surroundings. Arable land contains 26 according to cent of the total land region.

Natural world: 

About 30,000 animal species are found inside the united kingdom. Indigenous flora and fauna at first protected bears and wolves, but human settlement has long rendered these extinct. Surviving large mammals encompass deer, otters, badgers and foxes; marshland areas guide waders and different birds, and there are numerous migrants. Conservation schemes guard numerous species and critical habitats. The wildlife and nation-state Act 1981 extended the list of covered species, and three conservation organizations (English Nature, the countryside Council for Wales and Scottish herbal historical past) have schemes to get better and reintroduce threatened species. 5 mammal species and 4 bird species are thought to be endangered (2014).

History of United Kingdom



Of the many across the world acclaimed South African writers,  – Nadine Gordimer (in 1991) and John Maxwell Coetzee (in 2003) – have Nobel Prizes; and Coetzee (2000) and Manu Herbstein (first-rate First e-book in 2002) have been average winners in the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize.

Scholarships for postgraduate study are presented via South Africa to residents of other Commonwealth countries under the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan.

Key data

Joined Commonwealth:
1931 (Statute of Westminster; left in 1961, rejoined in 1994)
Populace:
52,910,000 (2016)
GDP:
Zero.3% annual alternate (2016)
UN HDI:
Global rating 116
Legitimate language:
There are eleven respectable languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
Timezone:
GMT plus 2hr
Currency:
Rand (R)
Geography
Place:
1,221,038 squarekm
Shoreline:
2,800km
Capital city:
Pretoria
Populace density (according to sq. Km):
46

The Republic of South Africa has land borders with: Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland. Its sea borders are with the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Lesotho is enclosed within its land area.

The u . S . Comprises 9 provinces: japanese Cape (provincial capital Bhisho), free country (Bloemfontein), Gauteng (Johannesburg), KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg), Limpopo (Polokwane), Mpumalanga (Nelspruit), Northern Cape (Kimberley), North-West (Mafikeng) and Western Cape (Cape town).

Important cities: 

Pretoria (administrative capital, Gauteng, pop. 1.76m), Cape city (legislative capital, Western Cape, three.43m), Bloemfontein (judicial capital, loose nation, 464,591), Johannesburg (Gauteng, 7.86m), Durban (KwaZulu-Natal, 2.79m), Soweto (Gauteng, 1.27m), Nelson Mandela Bay (japanese Cape, 1.15m), Port Elizabeth (jap Cape, 876,436), Soshanguve (Gauteng, 728,063), Evaton (Gauteng, 605,504), Pietermaritzburg (KwaZulu-Natal, 475,238), Tembisa (Gauteng, 463,109), Vereeniging (Gauteng, 377,922), East London (japanese Cape, 295,644), Boksburg (Gauteng, 260,321), Polokwane (Limpopo, 227,407), Kimberley (Northern Cape, 225,one hundred fifty five), Welkom (free nation, 211,014), Benoni (Gauteng, 158,777), Mafikeng (North-West, 64,359), Nelspruit (Mpumalanga, fifty eight,670), Richards Bay (KwaZulu-Natal, 50,511) and Bhisho (eastern Cape, eleven,192).

Delivery: 

There are 364,130 km of roads (17 per cent paved) and 20,500 km of railway (approximately half electrified). This sizeable rail community serves no longer simplest South Africa with its mining and heavy industries, but additionally neighbouring nations.

Ports also serve South Africa and its landlocked neighbours: Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The primary business ports are at Durban, Port Elizabeth, Cape town and East London. Durban is the leading port, with capacity for deep-sea ro-ro vessels and a main terminal of the three,one hundred-km long underground oil pipeline.

Worldwide airports are at Bloemfontein, Cape metropolis, Durban, Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth, at the same time as East London, Kimberley and Pretoria are crucial domestic airports. There are also some 210 certified aerodromes and forty heliports.

International family members: 

South Africa is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific institution of States, African Union, Indian Ocean Rim affiliation for regional Cooperation, Non-Aligned motion, Southern African Customs Union, Southern African development community, United international locations and international exchange business enterprise.

Topography: 

The southern a part of the historical African plateau bureaucracy the centre of South Africa, falling through rolling hills and coastal plains to the coastal belt. The exquisite Escarpment, containing the Drakensberg and Cape mountain levels, marks the high fringe of the plateau. The plateau lies at an altitude of approximately 1,500m in the south and east, dipping towards the north and west. At the plateau, land is flat or undulating and dotted with round hills or ‘koppies’. The Limpopo and Orange are the major river systems, despite the fact that Natal and elements of the Cape are traversed through rapid-flowing, seasonal rivers with coastal lagoons. Floor water is in quick supply.


Weather: 

Climate varies with altitude and continental function: Mediterranean climate in the Western Cape; humid subtropical climate on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast; continental climate of the highveld; and arid Karoo and Kalahari fringes, with a fantastic temperature range, giving very warm summer time days and cold dry nights. The south-east alternate winds, blowing first over KwaZulu- Natal, are the predominant supply of precipitation, falling in summer season. Wintry weather rains attain the Western Cape.

Surroundings: 

The maximum enormous environmental troubles are soil erosion, desertification, air pollution and ensuing acid rain, and pollution of rivers from agricultural run-off and concrete discharges. In a rustic with enormously few main rivers and lakes, huge water conservation and manage measures are important to hold pace with fast increase in water utilization.


Vegetation: 

Varies with climate, which includes temperate hardwood wooded area, dense coastal bush, Mediterranean scrub (together with many styles of aloes and proteas), vast grasslands of the veld dotted with flat-topped thorn timber, and bushveld scrub. South Africa’s native plant life have been evolved as garden flora everywhere in the world. Woodland covers eight in line with cent of the land vicinity, having declined at 1.8 per cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land comprises ten per cent and everlasting cropland less than one in step with cent of the total land place.


Wildlife: 

South Africa’s flora and fauna, amongst which can be the huge mammals characteristic of the African grassland, includes species, such as the white rhino, which can be endangered some other place. The sport reserves inclusive of the Kruger and Hluhluwe are considered the various international’s fine. The extensive range of chook species includes many migrants from the northern hemisphere. South Africa become a founder member of the international Union for the Conservation of Nature and natural sources (IUCN). Some 24 mammal species and forty one chicken species are thought to be endangered (2014).

History of South Africa