Australia changed into a founder member of the Commonwealth in 1931 when its independence turned into acknowledged below the Statute of Westminster.

It's miles one of 28 island countries inside the association; the mainland of Australia is the most important island inside the global.

Of the various across the world acclaimed Australian writers, 11 have won ordinary Commonwealth Writers’ Prizes, eight for great ebook and three for quality First book.


Key facts

Joined Commonwealth:
1931 (Statute of Westminster)
Populace:
23,343,000 (2013)
GDP:
1.Eight% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
Global ranking 2
Reputable language:
English
Timezone:
GMT plus eight–11hr
Forex:
Australian dollar (A$)
Geography
Area:
7,682,395 squarekm
Shoreline:
25,800km
Capital metropolis:
Canberra
Population density (in step with sq. Km):
3

The term ‘Australia’ is derived from Terra Australis, the call given to a southern landmass whose life geographers deduced before it was discovered. Papua New Guinea (to the north) and New Zealand (to the east) are Australia’s closest neighbours. To the south lie the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a Federation with six states – New South Wales (kingdom capital Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth) and Tasmania (Hobart) – and  territories, Northern Territory (capital Darwin) and the Australian Capital Territory, in which the federal capital, Canberra, is situated. Australia also has external territories (described inside the profiles following this one). Those have small populations or are uninhabited and, apart from the giant Australian Antarctic Territory, are small islands.

Major towns: 

Canberra (capital, Australian Capital Territory, pop. 356,586 in 2011), Sydney (New South Wales, three.9m), Melbourne (Victoria, three.7m), Brisbane (Queensland, 1.87m), Perth (Western Australia, 1.62m), Adelaide (South Australia, 1.1m), Gold Coast – Tweed Heads (Queensland, 533,659), Newcastle (New South Wales, 308,307), Hobart (Tasmania, 204,951) and Darwin (Northern Territory, seventy eight,467).

Shipping: 

There are 825,500 km of roads, forty four consistent with cent paved; Australian street layout is understood for the long, straight roads in rural regions. A few roads can be impassable after heavy rain.

Rail offerings hyperlink major towns across the u . S . And the full device extends to 8,615 km. The 4,000 km Indian–Pacific from Sydney to Perth takes 3 days. The 3,000 km north–south line, linking Adelaide in the south with Alice Springs in the centre and Darwin inside the north became finished in 2003.

The country has 25,800 km of shoreline and many deep-water harbours.

Global airports are at Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, Darwin, Brisbane, Hobart, Townsville and Cairns.


Global members of the family: 

Australia is a member of Asia–Pacific financial Cooperation, Indian Ocean Rim affiliation for regional Cooperation, business enterprise for monetary Co-operation and improvement, Pacific network, Pacific Islands forum, United international locations and global exchange organisation.

Topography: 

Australia is the largest hyperlink within the chain going for walks between South-East Asia and the South Pacific. A good deal of crucial Australia is wilderness. The main mountain chain, the wonderful Dividing variety, runs down the east coast, growing to Australia’s maximum point at Mt Kosciusko (2,230m). Consequently, a number of the rivers draining to the east are short; those flowing to the west, of which the Murray-Darling river machine is the maximum tremendous, generally tend to flow only after heavy rains and end in lakes which are regularly dry with a salt-bed.

Weather: 

The Tropic of Capricorn nearly bisects the continent, strolling just north of Alice Springs, Australia’s imperative agreement. The subtropical areas north of this line have summer rainfall and dry winters. South of the Tropic, the rest of the continent and Tasmania are temperate. Continental issues have an effect on this simple pattern, most coastal regions having some rainfall, whereas a massive tract of primary Australia has less than 300mm p.A. Drought and consequent bushfires are a extreme problem.

This sample of rainfall may be dramatically laid low with occasional los angeles Niña events which occur in the principal and japanese Pacific Ocean causing the sea to cool and growing the possibility that sturdy cool onshore winds will convey heavy rains to the japanese regions of Australia, as happened from November 2010, whilst there have been devastating floods first in Queensland, then in Victoria.

Environment: 

The maximum massive environmental issues are soil erosion and desertification; loss of the natural habitat of many precise animal and plant species due to increases in agricultural and commercial production; and harm to the wonderful Barrier Reef, the most important coral reef within the international, because of improved transport and tourism.

Vegetation: 

A huge variety, from the tropical jungle of Queensland to the sparse plant life of the wilderness, with many specific species which evolved inside the continent’s lengthy geological isolation. Over 500 species of eucalyptus and over 600 species of acacia (wattle). The primary fertile regions are in the south and east in New South Wales and Victoria – arable land comprises 6% of the full land place, while the north-east has tropical forest and bush – wooded area covers 19% of the usa.

Wildlife: 

Many indigenous animal species are precise to the continent. The maximum distinctive are the marsupials, of which there are 120 species from the kangaroo to the tiny desolate tract mouse, and the monotremes, the rare order of mammals which lay eggs, such as the duck-billed platypus and the echidna. There also are numerous species of flightless birds – the emu, 2d most effective to the African ostrich in size, and the cassowary

History of Austrailia



Australia changed into a founder member of the Commonwealth in 1931 when its independence turned into acknowledged below the Statute of Westminster.

It's miles one of 28 island countries inside the association; the mainland of Australia is the most important island inside the global.

Of the various across the world acclaimed Australian writers, 11 have won ordinary Commonwealth Writers’ Prizes, eight for great ebook and three for quality First book.


Key facts

Joined Commonwealth:
1931 (Statute of Westminster)
Populace:
23,343,000 (2013)
GDP:
1.Eight% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
Global ranking 2
Reputable language:
English
Timezone:
GMT plus eight–11hr
Forex:
Australian dollar (A$)
Geography
Area:
7,682,395 squarekm
Shoreline:
25,800km
Capital metropolis:
Canberra
Population density (in step with sq. Km):
3

The term ‘Australia’ is derived from Terra Australis, the call given to a southern landmass whose life geographers deduced before it was discovered. Papua New Guinea (to the north) and New Zealand (to the east) are Australia’s closest neighbours. To the south lie the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a Federation with six states – New South Wales (kingdom capital Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth) and Tasmania (Hobart) – and  territories, Northern Territory (capital Darwin) and the Australian Capital Territory, in which the federal capital, Canberra, is situated. Australia also has external territories (described inside the profiles following this one). Those have small populations or are uninhabited and, apart from the giant Australian Antarctic Territory, are small islands.

Major towns: 

Canberra (capital, Australian Capital Territory, pop. 356,586 in 2011), Sydney (New South Wales, three.9m), Melbourne (Victoria, three.7m), Brisbane (Queensland, 1.87m), Perth (Western Australia, 1.62m), Adelaide (South Australia, 1.1m), Gold Coast – Tweed Heads (Queensland, 533,659), Newcastle (New South Wales, 308,307), Hobart (Tasmania, 204,951) and Darwin (Northern Territory, seventy eight,467).

Shipping: 

There are 825,500 km of roads, forty four consistent with cent paved; Australian street layout is understood for the long, straight roads in rural regions. A few roads can be impassable after heavy rain.

Rail offerings hyperlink major towns across the u . S . And the full device extends to 8,615 km. The 4,000 km Indian–Pacific from Sydney to Perth takes 3 days. The 3,000 km north–south line, linking Adelaide in the south with Alice Springs in the centre and Darwin inside the north became finished in 2003.

The country has 25,800 km of shoreline and many deep-water harbours.

Global airports are at Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, Darwin, Brisbane, Hobart, Townsville and Cairns.


Global members of the family: 

Australia is a member of Asia–Pacific financial Cooperation, Indian Ocean Rim affiliation for regional Cooperation, business enterprise for monetary Co-operation and improvement, Pacific network, Pacific Islands forum, United international locations and global exchange organisation.

Topography: 

Australia is the largest hyperlink within the chain going for walks between South-East Asia and the South Pacific. A good deal of crucial Australia is wilderness. The main mountain chain, the wonderful Dividing variety, runs down the east coast, growing to Australia’s maximum point at Mt Kosciusko (2,230m). Consequently, a number of the rivers draining to the east are short; those flowing to the west, of which the Murray-Darling river machine is the maximum tremendous, generally tend to flow only after heavy rains and end in lakes which are regularly dry with a salt-bed.

Weather: 

The Tropic of Capricorn nearly bisects the continent, strolling just north of Alice Springs, Australia’s imperative agreement. The subtropical areas north of this line have summer rainfall and dry winters. South of the Tropic, the rest of the continent and Tasmania are temperate. Continental issues have an effect on this simple pattern, most coastal regions having some rainfall, whereas a massive tract of primary Australia has less than 300mm p.A. Drought and consequent bushfires are a extreme problem.

This sample of rainfall may be dramatically laid low with occasional los angeles Niña events which occur in the principal and japanese Pacific Ocean causing the sea to cool and growing the possibility that sturdy cool onshore winds will convey heavy rains to the japanese regions of Australia, as happened from November 2010, whilst there have been devastating floods first in Queensland, then in Victoria.

Environment: 

The maximum massive environmental issues are soil erosion and desertification; loss of the natural habitat of many precise animal and plant species due to increases in agricultural and commercial production; and harm to the wonderful Barrier Reef, the most important coral reef within the international, because of improved transport and tourism.

Vegetation: 

A huge variety, from the tropical jungle of Queensland to the sparse plant life of the wilderness, with many specific species which evolved inside the continent’s lengthy geological isolation. Over 500 species of eucalyptus and over 600 species of acacia (wattle). The primary fertile regions are in the south and east in New South Wales and Victoria – arable land comprises 6% of the full land place, while the north-east has tropical forest and bush – wooded area covers 19% of the usa.

Wildlife: 

Many indigenous animal species are precise to the continent. The maximum distinctive are the marsupials, of which there are 120 species from the kangaroo to the tiny desolate tract mouse, and the monotremes, the rare order of mammals which lay eggs, such as the duck-billed platypus and the echidna. There also are numerous species of flightless birds – the emu, 2d most effective to the African ostrich in size, and the cassowary

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