Kamalesh Sharma of India have become Commonwealth Secretary-preferred in 2008; and Professor Asha Kanwar become appointed President and leader govt Officer of the Commonwealth of studying in 2012.

Twelve Indians have been local winners in the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize, and 3 have long past on to take the general first-class e-book or first-class First e-book awards.

The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative established its HQ in New Delhi in 1993; and the united states of america is likewise host to the Commonwealth kids Programme Asia Centre in Chandigarh and the Commonwealth neighborhood government discussion board’s assignment office, Asia, in Mumbai.

Scholarships for postgraduate take a look at are offered through India to residents of other Commonwealth international locations below the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan.

Key statistics

Joined Commonwealth:
1947
Populace:
1,252,140,000 (2013)
GDP:
Four.7% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
International ranking one hundred thirty five
Reliable language:
Hindi, English
Timezone:
GMT plus 5.5hr
Forex:
Rupee (Rs)
Geography
Area:
Three,287,263 sq.Km
Shoreline:
7,520km
Capital city:
New Delhi
Population density (according to sq. Km):
381

The Republic of India, which lies throughout the Tropic of most cancers, comprises maximum of the Indian subcontinent. It is also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands inside the Arabian Sea. Its neighbours are Pakistan, Afghanistan and China to the north, then Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar (formerly Burma). Inside the south, the Palk Strait separates it from Sri Lanka.

India comprises 29 states (which includes the Delhi countrywide Capital Territory) and six union territories.

Foremost towns: 

New Delhi/Delhi (capital, pop. Eleven.03m in 2011), Mumbai (previously Bombay, in Maharashtra country, 18.39m), Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore, in Karnataka, 8.52m), Ahmadabad (Gujarat, 5.57m), Chennai (previously Madras, in Tamil Nadu, four.64m), Kolkata (formerly Calcutta, in West Bengal, 4.49m), Surat (Gujarat, four.46m), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, 3.94m), Jaipur (Rajasthan, three.42m), Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, 3.25m), Pune (Maharashtra, three.12m), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, 2.81m), Nagpur (Maharashtra, 2.49m), Patna (Bihar, 2.04m), Indore (Madhya Pradesh, 1.96m), Ludhiana (Punjab, 1.81m), Faridabad (Haryana, 1.8m), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh, 1.79m) and Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir, 1.26m).

Transport: 

There are 4,689,842 km of roads, forty seven per cent paved. The range of automobiles and the call for for roads is growing very hastily.

India has Asia’s largest, and the world’s fourth largest, railway gadget, with 64,460 km of music. The towns are connected by means of specific trains, and there are nearby trains among most elements of the usa.

The leader western port is Mumbai, and the leader jap ports are Kolkata–Haldia and Chennai. The u . S . A . Has 7,520 km of shoreline and coastal shipping of freight inside India performs an crucial position. There are approximately 19,000 km of navigable inland waterways, even though most effective four,six hundred km is navigable by way of massive vessels.

There are international airports at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Ahmadabad, and a total of about 250 airports with paved runways.

Global family members: 

India is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim association, Non- Aligned movement, South Asian affiliation for nearby Cooperation, United nations and global change organisation.

Topography: 

India has terrific topographical variety, with 4 awesome areas. The northern area rises into the Himalayas, forming a mountainous wall 160 km to 320 km deep, the mountains dropping height to the east. The second area is the plain of the River Ganges and its tributaries, a big stretch of flat alluvium flowing into the Bay of Bengal in a wide delta. That is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of India. The third area is the Thar desert, which stretches into Pakistan. The fourth region is the Deccan tableland bordered with the aid of tiers of hills, the Western and eastern Ghats and Nilgiri Hills in the south, and their coastal belts.

The u . S . Has many massive rivers, the maximum important of which can be the Ganges, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, a stretch of the Indus, Godavari, Krishna, Mahanadi, Narmada and Cauvery. These kind of rivers are navigable in parts.

Climate: 

The weather is warm with nearby variations. Rajasthan and big parts of the north-west are dry (beneath 750 mm annual rainfall) and the Thar wasteland (in reality a semi-wasteland) gets around 300 mm. A few eighty consistent with cent of rain falls between June and September, the season of the monsoon. April to June is usually warm, dry and dusty.

Environment: 

The maximum giant environmental problems are that finite herbal resources help a very massive and growing population; deforestation, soil erosion and desertification; air pollution with industrial effluents and car emissions; and water pollutants with uncooked sewage and run-off of agricultural insecticides.

Plants: 

Forests in the western Himalayan place range from conifers and large-leaved timber inside the temperate quarter to silver fir, silver birch and junipers at the best level of the alpine zone. The temperate region of the eastern Himalayan area has forests of all right, laurels, maples and rhododendrons, among different species. Flora of the Assam vicinity within the east is luxuriant with evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboo and tall grasses. The Gangetic undeniable is basically under cultivation. The Deccan tableland helps flowers from scrub to combined deciduous forests. The Malabar area is wealthy in forest plant life. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have evergreen, mangrove, seashore and diluvial forests. An awful lot of the country’s plants originated three million years in the past and are particular to the subcontinent. Forest covers 23 per cent of the land location, having increased at 0.3 per cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land contains 53 consistent with cent of the entire land place and permanent cropland four per cent.

Flora and fauna: 

Some of the indigenous mammals are elephants, bisons, pandas, Himalayan wild sheep, deer, antelopes and tapirs. Large cats include lions, tigers, panthers, cheetahs and leopards. The tiger is the Indian countrywide animal, protected considering that 1973. The tiger population, down to 1,827 in 1972, changed into in the mid-Nineteen Nineties again to three,750. Crocodiles and gharials (a crocodile unique to India) are bred in a assignment all started in 1974 to keep them from extinction. Birdlife is plentiful and consists of pheasants, mynahs, parakeets and hornbills. The outstanding Indian peacock is the country wide hen. Reptiles consist of cobras, saltwater snakes and pythons. Endangered natural world is blanketed beneath law and there are eighty three countrywide parks and 447 wildlife sanctuaries, protecting almost 5.2 in line with cent of the usa. Some ninety four mammal species and seventy three fowl species are concept to be endangered (2014).

History of India



Kamalesh Sharma of India have become Commonwealth Secretary-preferred in 2008; and Professor Asha Kanwar become appointed President and leader govt Officer of the Commonwealth of studying in 2012.

Twelve Indians have been local winners in the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize, and 3 have long past on to take the general first-class e-book or first-class First e-book awards.

The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative established its HQ in New Delhi in 1993; and the united states of america is likewise host to the Commonwealth kids Programme Asia Centre in Chandigarh and the Commonwealth neighborhood government discussion board’s assignment office, Asia, in Mumbai.

Scholarships for postgraduate take a look at are offered through India to residents of other Commonwealth international locations below the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan.

Key statistics

Joined Commonwealth:
1947
Populace:
1,252,140,000 (2013)
GDP:
Four.7% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
International ranking one hundred thirty five
Reliable language:
Hindi, English
Timezone:
GMT plus 5.5hr
Forex:
Rupee (Rs)
Geography
Area:
Three,287,263 sq.Km
Shoreline:
7,520km
Capital city:
New Delhi
Population density (according to sq. Km):
381

The Republic of India, which lies throughout the Tropic of most cancers, comprises maximum of the Indian subcontinent. It is also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands inside the Arabian Sea. Its neighbours are Pakistan, Afghanistan and China to the north, then Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar (formerly Burma). Inside the south, the Palk Strait separates it from Sri Lanka.

India comprises 29 states (which includes the Delhi countrywide Capital Territory) and six union territories.

Foremost towns: 

New Delhi/Delhi (capital, pop. Eleven.03m in 2011), Mumbai (previously Bombay, in Maharashtra country, 18.39m), Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore, in Karnataka, 8.52m), Ahmadabad (Gujarat, 5.57m), Chennai (previously Madras, in Tamil Nadu, four.64m), Kolkata (formerly Calcutta, in West Bengal, 4.49m), Surat (Gujarat, four.46m), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, 3.94m), Jaipur (Rajasthan, three.42m), Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, 3.25m), Pune (Maharashtra, three.12m), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, 2.81m), Nagpur (Maharashtra, 2.49m), Patna (Bihar, 2.04m), Indore (Madhya Pradesh, 1.96m), Ludhiana (Punjab, 1.81m), Faridabad (Haryana, 1.8m), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh, 1.79m) and Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir, 1.26m).

Transport: 

There are 4,689,842 km of roads, forty seven per cent paved. The range of automobiles and the call for for roads is growing very hastily.

India has Asia’s largest, and the world’s fourth largest, railway gadget, with 64,460 km of music. The towns are connected by means of specific trains, and there are nearby trains among most elements of the usa.

The leader western port is Mumbai, and the leader jap ports are Kolkata–Haldia and Chennai. The u . S . A . Has 7,520 km of shoreline and coastal shipping of freight inside India performs an crucial position. There are approximately 19,000 km of navigable inland waterways, even though most effective four,six hundred km is navigable by way of massive vessels.

There are international airports at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Ahmadabad, and a total of about 250 airports with paved runways.

Global family members: 

India is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim association, Non- Aligned movement, South Asian affiliation for nearby Cooperation, United nations and global change organisation.

Topography: 

India has terrific topographical variety, with 4 awesome areas. The northern area rises into the Himalayas, forming a mountainous wall 160 km to 320 km deep, the mountains dropping height to the east. The second area is the plain of the River Ganges and its tributaries, a big stretch of flat alluvium flowing into the Bay of Bengal in a wide delta. That is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of India. The third area is the Thar desert, which stretches into Pakistan. The fourth region is the Deccan tableland bordered with the aid of tiers of hills, the Western and eastern Ghats and Nilgiri Hills in the south, and their coastal belts.

The u . S . Has many massive rivers, the maximum important of which can be the Ganges, Jamuna, Brahmaputra, a stretch of the Indus, Godavari, Krishna, Mahanadi, Narmada and Cauvery. These kind of rivers are navigable in parts.

Climate: 

The weather is warm with nearby variations. Rajasthan and big parts of the north-west are dry (beneath 750 mm annual rainfall) and the Thar wasteland (in reality a semi-wasteland) gets around 300 mm. A few eighty consistent with cent of rain falls between June and September, the season of the monsoon. April to June is usually warm, dry and dusty.

Environment: 

The maximum giant environmental problems are that finite herbal resources help a very massive and growing population; deforestation, soil erosion and desertification; air pollution with industrial effluents and car emissions; and water pollutants with uncooked sewage and run-off of agricultural insecticides.

Plants: 

Forests in the western Himalayan place range from conifers and large-leaved timber inside the temperate quarter to silver fir, silver birch and junipers at the best level of the alpine zone. The temperate region of the eastern Himalayan area has forests of all right, laurels, maples and rhododendrons, among different species. Flora of the Assam vicinity within the east is luxuriant with evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboo and tall grasses. The Gangetic undeniable is basically under cultivation. The Deccan tableland helps flowers from scrub to combined deciduous forests. The Malabar area is wealthy in forest plant life. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have evergreen, mangrove, seashore and diluvial forests. An awful lot of the country’s plants originated three million years in the past and are particular to the subcontinent. Forest covers 23 per cent of the land location, having increased at 0.3 per cent p.A. 1990–2010. Arable land contains 53 consistent with cent of the entire land place and permanent cropland four per cent.

Flora and fauna: 

Some of the indigenous mammals are elephants, bisons, pandas, Himalayan wild sheep, deer, antelopes and tapirs. Large cats include lions, tigers, panthers, cheetahs and leopards. The tiger is the Indian countrywide animal, protected considering that 1973. The tiger population, down to 1,827 in 1972, changed into in the mid-Nineteen Nineties again to three,750. Crocodiles and gharials (a crocodile unique to India) are bred in a assignment all started in 1974 to keep them from extinction. Birdlife is plentiful and consists of pheasants, mynahs, parakeets and hornbills. The outstanding Indian peacock is the country wide hen. Reptiles consist of cobras, saltwater snakes and pythons. Endangered natural world is blanketed beneath law and there are eighty three countrywide parks and 447 wildlife sanctuaries, protecting almost 5.2 in line with cent of the usa. Some ninety four mammal species and seventy three fowl species are concept to be endangered (2014).

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