The 58th Commonwealth Parliamentary conference turned into held in Colombo in September 2012. Sri Lanka was the primary Commonwealth nation to have a female prime minister. Sirimavo Bandaranaike served for 3 periods of workplace: 1960–sixty five, 1970–seventy seven and 1994–2000. Shehan Karunatilaka won the Commonwealth Writers’ ebook Prize in 2012. Sanath Jayasuriya changed into Wisden main Cricketer in the world in 1996, Muttiah Muralitharan in 2000 and 2006, and okay C Sangakkara in 2011.

Key statistics

Joined Commonwealth:
1948
Populace:
21,273,000 (2013)
GDP:
Percent. Boom: 4.6% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
World rating seventy three
Reputable language:
Sinhala, Tamil
Timezone:
GMT plus five:30hr
Forex:
Sri Lanka rupee (SLRs)
Geography
Place:
Sixty five,610 squarekm
Shoreline:
1,340km
Capital town:
Colombo
Population density (in keeping with sq. Km):
324

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (previously Ceylon) is an island within the Indian Ocean, separated from south-east India (Tamil Nadu kingdom) by means of the Palk Strait. It's far almost connected to the Indian mainland with the aid of Adam’s Bridge, an atoll barrier, mostly submerged, lying between the offshore island of Mannar and India itself.

The united states incorporates 9 provinces (from south to north): Southern (provincial capital Galle), Sabaragamuwa (Ratnapura), Western (Colombo), Uva (Badulla), japanese (Trincomalee), valuable (Kandy), North-Western (Kurunegala), North-vital (Anuradhapura) and northern (Jaffna).

Important towns: 

Colombo (business capital; Western Province; pop. 561,314 in 2012), Sri Jayewardenepura–Kotte (administrative capital; extra Colombo, 107,925), Maharagama (more Colombo, 196,423), Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia (extra Colombo, 184,468), Moratuwa (greater Colombo, 168,280), Negombo (142,499), Kalmunai (99,893), Kandy (principal, ninety eight,828), Galle (Southern, 86,333), Batticaloa (86,227), Jaffna (Northern, 80,829), Daluguma (seventy four,400), Katunayaka (61,228), Anuradhapura (North-relevant, 50,595), Trincomalee (eastern, forty eight,351), Ratnapura (Sabaragamuwa, 47,a hundred and five), Badulla (Uva, 42,237), Vavuniya (34,816), Kurunegala (North-Western, 24,833), Dambulla (23,814), Chavakachcheri (16,129), factor Pedro (thirteen,three hundred) and Valvettithurai (7,three hundred).

Shipping: 

There are 114,090 km of roads (eighty in keeping with cent paved) and about 1,460 km of railway. Rail hyperlinks exist between the most important towns. The traces run from Colombo north along the coast to Puttalam, north through Kurunegala and Anuradhapura to Mannar and to Jaffna; north-east to Trincomalee and Batticaloa; east to Kandy via Gampaha; and south alongside the coast to Galle and Matara.

The worldwide ports are at Colombo, Galle, Talaimannar and Trincomalee. Bandaranaike global airport is 32 km from Colombo.

The larger home airports are at Ratmalana (Colombo) inside the south and Jaffna inside the north.

International members of the family:
Sri Lanka is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim association for nearby Cooperation, Non-Aligned movement, South Asian affiliation for local Cooperation, United countries and world alternate agency.

Topography: 

Past the coastal plains, Sri Lanka’s topography is dominated by way of an outstandingly beautiful primary mountain massif of gneiss rock, with the best point at Pidurutalagala (2,524m). The holy Adam’s top (2,243m) is so called from a mark at the pinnacle inside the likeness of a human footprint, variously attributed as the print of the Buddha, Vishnu or Adam, and is an area of pilgrimage. The coastal plains are broader inside the north, petering out inside the long low-lying Jaffna peninsula. Several rapid-flowing non-navigable rivers rise up inside the mountains. The Mahaweli Ganga, from which hydroelectric energy is acquired, is the longest at 322km.

One of the maximum violent earthquakes ever recorded happened on 26 December 2004 within the Indian Ocean west of Sumatra producing a tsunami that swamped the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka causing approximately 31,000 deaths and devastation of the coastal vicinity.

Climate: 

Tropical. The lowlands are constantly warm, particularly March–may additionally. The highlands are cooler. At some stage in December and January there may be occasional frost on very high floor – as an instance, at Nuwara Eliya. The dry season is March–mid-may also. The south-west monsoon season lasts from mid-might also–September, the north-east monsoon season November–March.

Surroundings: 

The maximum substantial environmental issues are: deforestation; soil erosion; coastal degradation because of mining activities and accelerated pollutants; pollution of freshwater assets through business wastes and sewage; air pollutants in Colombo; and the hazard to wildlife populations of poaching and urbanisation.

Flowers: 

Forest covers 29 according to cent of the land vicinity, having declined at 1.2 according to cent p.A. 1990–2010. Vegetation is rich and luxuriant, with a extraordinary variety of plant life, bushes, creepers and flowering shrubs. The flowers of Sri Lanka had been described by way of Linnaeus in 1747 from specimens accumulated via a fellow botanist. Some of the many species of bushes are the rubber tree, palm, acacia, margosa, satinwood, Ceylon oak, tamarind, ebony, coral tree and banyan. Plant life and shrubs consist of the orchid and rhododendron. There are approximately three,three hundred species of flowers, of which a few 288 are threatened with extinction. Arable land contains 20 according to cent and permanent cropland sixteen consistent with cent of the total land location.


Flora and fauna: 

Nature reserves now cover ten consistent with cent of the island. Wilpattu country wide Park in the north-west (813 sq.Km) is pleasant acknowledged for leopards; Yala country wide Park within the south-east (112 sq.Km) is home to large elephant populations. But, reduction of the herbal tropical hardwood forest is endangering several animal species. A few 30 mammal species and 14 bird species are concept to be endangered (2014).

History of Sri Lanka

 
The 58th Commonwealth Parliamentary conference turned into held in Colombo in September 2012. Sri Lanka was the primary Commonwealth nation to have a female prime minister. Sirimavo Bandaranaike served for 3 periods of workplace: 1960–sixty five, 1970–seventy seven and 1994–2000. Shehan Karunatilaka won the Commonwealth Writers’ ebook Prize in 2012. Sanath Jayasuriya changed into Wisden main Cricketer in the world in 1996, Muttiah Muralitharan in 2000 and 2006, and okay C Sangakkara in 2011.

Key statistics

Joined Commonwealth:
1948
Populace:
21,273,000 (2013)
GDP:
Percent. Boom: 4.6% p.A. 1990–2013
UN HDI:
World rating seventy three
Reputable language:
Sinhala, Tamil
Timezone:
GMT plus five:30hr
Forex:
Sri Lanka rupee (SLRs)
Geography
Place:
Sixty five,610 squarekm
Shoreline:
1,340km
Capital town:
Colombo
Population density (in keeping with sq. Km):
324

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (previously Ceylon) is an island within the Indian Ocean, separated from south-east India (Tamil Nadu kingdom) by means of the Palk Strait. It's far almost connected to the Indian mainland with the aid of Adam’s Bridge, an atoll barrier, mostly submerged, lying between the offshore island of Mannar and India itself.

The united states incorporates 9 provinces (from south to north): Southern (provincial capital Galle), Sabaragamuwa (Ratnapura), Western (Colombo), Uva (Badulla), japanese (Trincomalee), valuable (Kandy), North-Western (Kurunegala), North-vital (Anuradhapura) and northern (Jaffna).

Important towns: 

Colombo (business capital; Western Province; pop. 561,314 in 2012), Sri Jayewardenepura–Kotte (administrative capital; extra Colombo, 107,925), Maharagama (more Colombo, 196,423), Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia (extra Colombo, 184,468), Moratuwa (greater Colombo, 168,280), Negombo (142,499), Kalmunai (99,893), Kandy (principal, ninety eight,828), Galle (Southern, 86,333), Batticaloa (86,227), Jaffna (Northern, 80,829), Daluguma (seventy four,400), Katunayaka (61,228), Anuradhapura (North-relevant, 50,595), Trincomalee (eastern, forty eight,351), Ratnapura (Sabaragamuwa, 47,a hundred and five), Badulla (Uva, 42,237), Vavuniya (34,816), Kurunegala (North-Western, 24,833), Dambulla (23,814), Chavakachcheri (16,129), factor Pedro (thirteen,three hundred) and Valvettithurai (7,three hundred).

Shipping: 

There are 114,090 km of roads (eighty in keeping with cent paved) and about 1,460 km of railway. Rail hyperlinks exist between the most important towns. The traces run from Colombo north along the coast to Puttalam, north through Kurunegala and Anuradhapura to Mannar and to Jaffna; north-east to Trincomalee and Batticaloa; east to Kandy via Gampaha; and south alongside the coast to Galle and Matara.

The worldwide ports are at Colombo, Galle, Talaimannar and Trincomalee. Bandaranaike global airport is 32 km from Colombo.

The larger home airports are at Ratmalana (Colombo) inside the south and Jaffna inside the north.

International members of the family:
Sri Lanka is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim association for nearby Cooperation, Non-Aligned movement, South Asian affiliation for local Cooperation, United countries and world alternate agency.

Topography: 

Past the coastal plains, Sri Lanka’s topography is dominated by way of an outstandingly beautiful primary mountain massif of gneiss rock, with the best point at Pidurutalagala (2,524m). The holy Adam’s top (2,243m) is so called from a mark at the pinnacle inside the likeness of a human footprint, variously attributed as the print of the Buddha, Vishnu or Adam, and is an area of pilgrimage. The coastal plains are broader inside the north, petering out inside the long low-lying Jaffna peninsula. Several rapid-flowing non-navigable rivers rise up inside the mountains. The Mahaweli Ganga, from which hydroelectric energy is acquired, is the longest at 322km.

One of the maximum violent earthquakes ever recorded happened on 26 December 2004 within the Indian Ocean west of Sumatra producing a tsunami that swamped the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka causing approximately 31,000 deaths and devastation of the coastal vicinity.

Climate: 

Tropical. The lowlands are constantly warm, particularly March–may additionally. The highlands are cooler. At some stage in December and January there may be occasional frost on very high floor – as an instance, at Nuwara Eliya. The dry season is March–mid-may also. The south-west monsoon season lasts from mid-might also–September, the north-east monsoon season November–March.

Surroundings: 

The maximum substantial environmental issues are: deforestation; soil erosion; coastal degradation because of mining activities and accelerated pollutants; pollution of freshwater assets through business wastes and sewage; air pollutants in Colombo; and the hazard to wildlife populations of poaching and urbanisation.

Flowers: 

Forest covers 29 according to cent of the land vicinity, having declined at 1.2 according to cent p.A. 1990–2010. Vegetation is rich and luxuriant, with a extraordinary variety of plant life, bushes, creepers and flowering shrubs. The flowers of Sri Lanka had been described by way of Linnaeus in 1747 from specimens accumulated via a fellow botanist. Some of the many species of bushes are the rubber tree, palm, acacia, margosa, satinwood, Ceylon oak, tamarind, ebony, coral tree and banyan. Plant life and shrubs consist of the orchid and rhododendron. There are approximately three,three hundred species of flowers, of which a few 288 are threatened with extinction. Arable land contains 20 according to cent and permanent cropland sixteen consistent with cent of the total land location.


Flora and fauna: 

Nature reserves now cover ten consistent with cent of the island. Wilpattu country wide Park in the north-west (813 sq.Km) is pleasant acknowledged for leopards; Yala country wide Park within the south-east (112 sq.Km) is home to large elephant populations. But, reduction of the herbal tropical hardwood forest is endangering several animal species. A few 30 mammal species and 14 bird species are concept to be endangered (2014).

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